In February 2019 researchers from China published the results of their analyses to assess the effect of various minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc) and risk of osteoporosis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 2, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and major depressive disorder. Results showed that their analysis supported the long-standing hypothesis that magnesium supplementation increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and bipolar disorder whilst decreasing the risk of osteoporosis, and that copper intake increases the risk of both Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disease. In addition, there was suggestive evidence that a higher calcium intake may increase the risk of diabetes type 2 whilst iron intake may reduce the risk; both magnesium and iron intake may also reduce the risk of gout.
Cheng WW et al. Mineral Nutrition and the Risk of Chronic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients. 2019 Feb 12;11(2). pii: E378