In July 2018 researchers from Czech Republic and Slovakia published their review on how wine consumption influences the function of human organs, prevents diseases and reduces damage to the cardiovascular system. This is due, in part, to the presence and amount of antioxidants found in wine. Antioxidants can be found in many plants, such as fruits and vegetables. Their presence in food and drink reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, and diabetes. One of the most notable classes of wine compounds is polyphenols which typically act as antioxidants. The polyphenol composition and exact content are dependent on many factors, such as the grape variety. White wines usually contain less polyphenols than red wines. The total polyphenol content in white wine is in terms of hundreds of mg GAE.L−1 (gallic acid equivalents), whereas red wine total polyphenol content is in terms of thousands. The most important polyphenols in red wine are resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins, and tannins (proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins). Resveratrol is active in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by neutralizing free oxygen radicals and reactive nitrogenous radicals; it penetrates the blood-brain barrier and, thus, protects the brain and nerve cells. It also reduces platelet aggregation and therefore counteracts the formation of blood clots. Resveratrol can also improve endothelial function and glucose metabolism, reducing inflammation, and regulating blood lipids. Other wine polyphenols are an integral part of these actions and contribute positively to the beneficial effects of wine. According to some research, it is possible to strengthen the effect of resveratrol through a well-balanced diet, such as a form of the “Mediterranean diet”, which includes red wine, fish, fruits, and vegetables, and foods high in dietary fibre, vitamins, and minerals. It is recommended that a moderate, optional, daily alcohol consumption is about 15 g of alcohol for women and 30 g for men. The highest tolerated dose ranges up to 36 g per day for healthy women and up to 60 g per day for healthy men. However, it should be noted that the positive effects of wine consumption may fluctuate depending on the individual active substances and other factors.
Snopek L et al. Contribution of Red Wine Consumption to Human Health Protection. Molecules. 2018 Jul 11;23(7). pii: E1684