In May 2019 researchers from the Sudan published the results of their study to assess vitamin D levels in individuals with diabetes type 2 and its association with diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. A total of 205 individuals with diabetes type 2 (aged 39-75 years) were included in the study. Vitamin D, C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels were measured and the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio estimated in all individuals. Results showed that 78.5% of individuals had a vitamin D level of under 30 ng/ml. In addition, the C-reactive protein and albumin:creatinine ratio were seen to be significantly increased in these individuals. Females tended to have significantly lower vitamin D levels than males. Those individuals who had exposure to sunlight had significantly higher vitamin D levels and lower C-reactive protein levels compared to those with less sun exposure, whilst exercise was seen to significantly increase vitamin D levels and decrease the albumin:creatinine ratio. A higher vitamin D level was associated with higher age groups whilst a lower vitamin D level was associated with a higher BMI, a longer time period the individual had had diabetes, a higher albumin:creatinine ratio and higher HbA1c levels.
Aljack HA et al. Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J Res Med Sci. 2019 May 22;24:47