In June 2019 researchers from Italy published their review of the medical scientific literature to assess the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Results showed that there is consistent evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes type 2. However, so far studies have not succeeded in proving a benefit of vitamin D supplementation. It should be noted that there are some methodological limitations in some of the studies and therefore it is still unclear if vitamin D deficiency has a causative role in cardiovascular diseases or is rather a marker of poor health in chronic disease.
Saponaro F et al. Vitamin D status and cardiovascular outcome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2019 Jun 6. [Epub ahead of print]