In March 2019 researchers from the UK published their review of the medical scientific literature to assess the effectiveness of a Mediterranean-style diet in preventing cardiovascular disease. A total of 39 studies were included in the review. Results showed that there was medium quality evidence for the Mediterranean diet with additional extra virgin olive or nuts reducing the number of strokes. In addition there was moderate-quality evidence that the Mediterranean diet was able to reduce blood pressure levels, as well as a possible small reduction in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. In those with a history of cardiovascular disease there was low-quality evidence that the Mediterranean diet with additional canola margarine reduced the incidence of death due to cardiovascular disease. In addition there was low-quality evidence that a Mediterranean-style diet had little or no effect on lipid levels and blood pressure levels.
Rees K et al. Mediterranean-style diet for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 13;3:CD009825