In September 2019 researchers from the UK and USA published their review of the medical and scientific literature to assess the cardiovascular health risks associated with individual dietary components. A total of 16 studies were included for dietary food items and 17 studies for cardiovascular disease. Results showed that whole grain bread, breakfast cereal, oats/oatmeal were associated with a reduced risk of dying prematurely from any cause, as were root vegetables, green leafy vegetables/salad, cooked vegetables and cruciferous vegetables. Fish consumption was associated with a small benefit whilst processed meat appeared to be harmful. Consumption of tinned fruit was associated with an increased risk of prematurely dying from cardiovascular disease whilst tree nuts and peanuts were associated with a reduced risk. Similar associations were seen for symptoms of cardiovascular disease, with carbohydrates, nuts and fish showing a reduction in risk, but red meat and processed meat an increased risk.
Kwok CS et al. Dietary components and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a review of evidence from meta-analyses. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2019 Sep;26(13):1415-1429.