In July 2018 researchers from Italy published the results of their study to assess the effect of hazelnut and cocoa spread on the cardiovascular system in smokers. Twenty smokers were divided into two groups and consumed either 60g hazelnut and cocoa spread or 60g milk chocolate (35% cocoa). Various cardiovascular parameters were assessed both prior to and 2 hours after the cocoa consumption. Results showed that flow mediated dilatation had significantly improved following the consumption of hazelnut and cocoa spread. In addition, polyphenol and vitamin E levels had significantly increased. No changes in these parameters were observed following consumption of the milk chocolate.