In December 2016 researchers from Norway, UK and the USA published the results of their review of the medical scientific literature to assess the relationship between nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and premature death. A total of 29 articles were analysed, which included 20 studies. Results showed that for each 28g per day increase in nut consumption there was a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer and premature death. An analysis of the premature deaths showed that nut consumption appeared to specifically reduce the risk of premature death from respiratory disease, diabetes, and infections. The results were similar for tree nuts and peanuts. The researchers went on to estimate that, if the association was causal, approximately 4.4 million premature deaths worldwide may be attributable to a nut intake of below 20g per day.
Aune D et al. Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMC Med. 2016 Dec 5;14(1):207.