In April 2019 researchers from the UK, Malaysia and Indonesia published the results of their study to investigate the foods eaten for breakfast as well as the association between breakfast frequency and risk of cardiovascular disease in adolescents. A total of 795 adolescents, aged 13 years, were involved in the study. Information on the frequency of any food or drink reported as breakfast was collected via 7-day diet history interviews. In addition cardiovascular disease risk factors including BMI, waist circumference as well as blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and blood pressure levels were assessed. It was noted that whilst 12% of adolescents never ate breakfast, 50% ate breakfast on a daily basis. Results showed that each breakfast contained an average of 400 kcal and commonly comprised cereal-based dishes (primarily rice), confectionery (primarily sugar), hot/powdered drinks (primarily Milo), and high-fat milk (primarily sweetened condensed milk). A further analysis revealed that each extra day of breakfast consumption per week was associated with a lower BMI, as well as reduced total and LDL(bad)-cholesterol levels.
Mustafa N et al. The Association of Breakfast Frequency and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Factors among Adolescents in Malaysia. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 28;11(5). pii: E973