In January 2019 researchers from the Czech Republic and the USA assessed the effect of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals on gastrointestinal hormones and satiety in 60 men. 20 of the men had diabetes type 2, 20 were obese and 20 were healthy. Each individual was given a processed meat and cheese meal and then, on a separate occasion, a vegan meal with tofu. Gastrointestinal hormones (glucagon-like peptide -1, amylin, and peptide YY) were analysed at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Results showed that the gastrointestinal hormones were higher and satiety greater following the vegan and tofu meal when compared to the processed meat and cheese meal. In fact, satiety was greater by 9% in those with diabetes type 2, 18.7% in those who were obese, and 25% in the healthy individuals.
Klementova M et al. A Plant-Based Meal Increases Gastrointestinal Hormones and Satiety More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Processed-Meat Meal in T2D, Obese, and Healthy Men: A Three-Group Randomized Crossover Study. Nutrients. 2019 Jan 12;11(1).