In May 2017 researchers from Germany, Austria and the UK published their review of the medical scientific literature to assess the relationship between the consumption of 12 major food groups and risk of diabetes type 2. Studies investigating the association between whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of diabetes type 2 were analysed. Results showed that three of the food-groups (whole grains, fruits, and dairy) showed a decrease in risk when the highest consumption was compared with the lowest, whilst three groups (red meat, processed meat, and sugar sweetened beverages) showed an increase in risk. A further analysis revealed that a higher consumption of the risk-decreasing foods resulted in a 42% reduction in the risk of diabetes type 2, whilst consumption of the risk-increasing foods was associated with a threefold increased risk. No association was seen with refined grains, vegetables, nuts, legumes, eggs and fish and risk of diabetes type 2.
Schwingshackl L et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 May;32(5):363-375