In December 2017 researchers from Italy and Spain published the results of their study to assess the association between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of developing kidney stones. 16,094 individuals were included in the study and followed up for an average period of 10 years. Dietary information was collected via a 136-item food frequency questionnaire and a Mediterranean dietary pattern score calculated for each individual. During the period of follow-up, 735 new diagnoses of kidney stones were made. Results showed that the greater the adherence to a Mediterranean style diet, the lower the risk of developing kidney stones. A further analysis revealed that a higher consumption of dairy products and vegetables also reduced the risk of kidney stones but that a higher monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio increased the risk.
Leone A et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Nephrolithiasis in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Cohort. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Dec;70(6):778-786.